In 1802 Thomas Young did the double-slit experiment, and invented
the

wave theory of light to explain his observations. In 1831 Michael
Faraday

discovered electromagnetic induction, and invented field
theory to explain those

observations. 1n1873 James Clerk Maxwell
bought into both theories, and

suggested that light was an electromagnetic
wave whose speed could be

measured with respect to what was then
called the luminiferous aether. Then, in

1887, Michelson and Morley
showed that the speed of light could not be

measured with respect
to the aether_ Finally, in 1905, Albert Einstein, through his

rare
insight, dropped the luminiferous aether idea but kept Young's wave theory

and Faraday's field theory in his 1915 general relativity theory, even though his

1905 geometry denies them both.

In Einstein's 1905 geometry, space and time come in as a pair of

opposites so that if the space and time separations between two events are

equal, their total space-time separation is zero. tf a light beam can get from one

event to the other in vacuuo, then their space and time separations are equal and

their space-time separation is zero. The "speed of light" is therefore not
a speed

at all. It is simply the ratio of space to time. One light
year is equal to one year.

And, since that puts the total space-time
separation between the emission and

absorption events at zero for
both gravitational and electromagnetic radiation in

vacuuo, we should,
perhaps, dispense with both the wave and field theories in

the explanation
of our observations.

Einstein took his famous equation, E = mc 2 ("in which energy is set equal

to mass") as he wrote it. However, it is usually taken to mean that mass can be

converted to energy, and that energy can be converted to mass, much, as in a

swinging pendulum, gravitational energy is converted to kinetic energy on the

down-swing and kinetic energy is converted to gravitational energy on the upswing.

But that equation would have been E m = K (The sum of mass and

energy is constant). That's not what he meant, and its not what he wrote. His

equation simply states that what we call mass is just potential energy as Swami

Vivekananda had suggested to Nikola Testa in1896. But if one fails to notice that

Einstein's geometry rules out the existence of photons and gravitons, because

the total space-time separations between their emission and absorption events is

zero, then there appears to be energy in the radiation state without mass, and

then, of course, Einstein's famous equation could not hold.

No one sees electromagnetic waves, and no one sees
photons. All we

know about electromagnetic radiation is the emission
and absorption events.

Let's stick to the observations!

As Thomas Huxley remarked
when he ran into Darwin's theory of

evolution, "How extremely
stupid not to have thought of that."

John L. Dobson, June
19, 2002

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